International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Assessment of Nutrient Availability and Competition Between Striga Hermonthica and Maize Plant

One of the major challenges in maize production across the globe is that of infestation by striga, a parasitic plant resulting in intense competition for mineral resources. And eventual decline in overall maize yield. This study assesses the extent of competition for nutrients by maize plant inter-planted with Striga hermonthica under green-house conditions using the variables: Maize planted alone (M), maize inter-planted with striga (M/S), maize planted alone with fertilizer application (MF), maize inter-planted with striga and fertilizer applied (M/SF), striga only (S) and striga with fertilizer (SF). The growth profile obtained was in the order: MF > M > M/SF > M/S > SF > S implying a significant effect on maize growth by striga. However, the distribution of proximate constituents’ showed that moisture, ash, crude protein, lipid, and fibre content is more in striga root compared to the shoot likewise, the moisture, ash, and lipid content of the root supersede the shoot in maize plant inter-planted with striga. Then, the moisture, ash, and carbohydrate content of striga root and shoot surpass that of the maize inter-planted with striga. Soil to plant Bio-Concentration Factor of phosphorus was in the order: S > M > M/S, for potassium, was S > M /S > M, while magnesium: S > M > M/S then manganese: S = M = M/S. Based on the highest value of regression coefficient R2 of the linearized plot of the diverse kinetic models, the pseudo second order kinetics model dominates the uptake rate of K, Mg and Mn by maize plant while the uptake of P, K, and Mg by striga conforms to elovic kinetic model. The mean sorption capacity K of minerals based on Freundlich-like equation reveals higher uptake capacity by striga plant when compared to maize plant which supports the reason why striga competes favorably with maize for mineral with a significant effect in lowering maize yield. Given the higher sorption capacity of Striga hermonthica, further studies are suggested on fortifying maize to compete favorably with striga plant.

Striga hermonthica, Proximate Compositions, Mineral Elements, Uptake Capacity and Kinetics

APA Style

Emmanuel Amuntse Yerima, Silas Ngandi Johnson. (2023). Assessment of Nutrient Availability and Competition Between Striga Hermonthica and Maize Plant. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 11(5), 106-113. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.20231105.12

ACS Style

Emmanuel Amuntse Yerima; Silas Ngandi Johnson. Assessment of Nutrient Availability and Competition Between Striga Hermonthica and Maize Plant. Int. J. Environ. Monit. Anal. 2023, 11(5), 106-113. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20231105.12

AMA Style

Emmanuel Amuntse Yerima, Silas Ngandi Johnson. Assessment of Nutrient Availability and Competition Between Striga Hermonthica and Maize Plant. Int J Environ Monit Anal. 2023;11(5):106-113. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20231105.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemicals) (2005) Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC W. Horwitz Editor, 18th Edition, Washington; D. C., AOAC.
2. Bachitter, S. (2008). Nutrient uptake by hybrid poplar in competition with weed species under growth chamber and field conditions using the soil supply and nutrient demand (sand) model. PhD Thesis Department of Soil Science University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Canada 135P.
3. Berner, D., Winslow, M., Awad, A., Cardwell, K., Raji, D. and Kim, S. (1997). Sriga research methods: a manual. The Pan-Africa Striga Control Network. Ibadan, Nigria. IITA, Pp. 14-60.
4. Bouis, H., Hotz, C., McClafferty, B., Meenakshi, J. V. and Pfeiffer, W. (2011). Biofortification: a new tool to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Food Nutrition Bulletine, 32: 31–40.
5. Casper, B. B. and Jackson, R. B. (1997). Plant competition underground. Annual Review of Ecological Systems, 28: 545-570.
6. Dugje, I. Y., Kamara, A. Y. and Omoigui, L. O. (2008). Influence of farmers’ crop management practices on Striga hermonthica infestation and grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in the savanna zones of northeast Nigeria. Journal of Agronomy, 7 (1): 33-40.
7. Ebelegi, A., Ayawei, N. and Wankasi, D. (2020). Interpretation of adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics. Open Journal of Physical Chemistry, 10: 166-182. Doi: 10.4236/ojpc.2020.103010.
8. Ekwumemgbo, P. A., Omoniyi, K. I. and Yerima, E. A. (2015). Apparent Nutritional Composition of Locally Sourced Blood Meal from Bos primigenius and Ovis aries for Poultry Applications. Chemical Science Review and Letters, 4 (13): 395-404.
9. Gupta, H. S., Hossain F. and Muthusamy, V. (2015). Biofortification of maize: an Indian perspective. Indian Journal of Genetics, 75: 1–22.
10. Hossain, F., Vignesh, M., Jayant, S. B., Shailendra, K. J., Rajkumar, Z., Abhijit, D., Konsam, S. and Rajesh, K. (2016). Maize, In: Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Cereals, Pp. 67-88.
11. Idris, S., Iyaka, Y. A., Dauda, B. E. N., Ndamitso, M. M. and Umar, M. T. (2012). Kinetic study of utilizing groundnut shell as an adsorbent in removing chromium andnikel rom dye effluent. American Chemical Science Journal, 2 (1): 12-24.
12. Ishaq, S. E., Erwin, B. and Gary, W. V. (2002). Degradation and sorption of pirimiphos-methyl in two Nigerian soils. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 50 (20): 634–5639.
13. Jakub, T., Lenka, P. and Duncan D. C. (2010). Interactions between hemiparasitic plants and their hosts and the importance of organic carbon transfer. Plant Signal Behaviours, 5 (9): 1072–1076.
14. Memarian, R. and Ramamurthy, A. S. (2013). Modeling of lead and cadmium uptake by plants in the presence of surfactants. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 185: 2067–2071.
15. Nail, K., Kritocos, D. J., Scott, J. K., Yonow, T. and Ota, N. (2014). Striga asiatica. Harvest choice pest Geography, 2: 1-6.
16. Palma, G., Demanet, R., Jorquera, M., Mora, M. L., Briceño, G., Violante, A. (2015). Effect of pH on sorption kinetic process of acidic herbicides in a volcanic soil. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 15 (3): 549-560.
17. Spallek, T. Mutuku, J. M. and Shirasu, K. (2013). The genus Striga: a witch profile. Molecular Plant Pathology, 3 (9): 1 - 9.
18. Subhashini, V. and Swamy, A. V. V. S. (2014). Phytoremediation of Metal (Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd and Cr) Contaminated Soils Using Canna Indica. Current World Environment, 9 (3): 780 -784.
19. Wakawa, A. I., Sambo, A. B. and Yusuf, S. (2018). Phytochemistry and proximate composition of root, stem bark, leaf and fruit of desert date, Balanites Aegyptiaca; 7 (6): 464-470.
20. Westwood, J. H., Yoder, J. I., Timko, M. P. and dePamphilis, C. W. (2010). The evolution of parasitism in plants. Trends in Plant Science, 15: 227–235.
21. William, K. G., Emik, S., Ongen, A., Kurtulus, O. H. and Aydin, S. (2019). Modelling of adsorption kinetic processes-errors, theory and application. IntechOpen. Doi: 10.5772/intechopen.80495.
22. Wu, F. C., Tseng, R. L. and Juang, R. S. (2009). Initial behavior of intraparticle diffusion model used in the description of adsorption kinetics. Chemical Engineering Journal, 153: 1–8.
23. Yang, Y., Woodward, L. A., Li, Q. X. and Wang, J. (2014). Concentrations, Source and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils from Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean. Plos One; 9 (1): 1-12.
24. Yerima, E. A. and Kamba, E. A. (2023). Evaluation of Urea and Molasses Treatment on the Nutritional Composition of Guinea Corn Stalk. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Science; 5 (1): 21-26. DOI: 10.24018/ejfood.2023.5.1.623.
25. Yerima, E. A., Itodo, A. U., Sha’Ato R. and Wuana, R. A. (2020). Ecological risk assessment of mineral and heavy metals level of soil around auto mechanic village Wukari, Nigeria. Academic Journal of Chemistry 5 (7): 81-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32861/ajc.57.81.90
26. Yerima, E. A., Itodo, A. U., Sha’Ato, R., Wuana, R. A., Egah, G. O. and Ma’aji, S. P. (2022). Phytoremediation and Bioconcentration of Mineral and Heavy metals in Zea mays Inter- planted with Striga hermonthica in Soils from Mechanic Village Wukari. African Scientific Reports 1: 60–72. DOI: 10.46481/asr.2022.1.2.9.
27. Yerima, E. A., Itodo, A. U., Kamba, E. A., Ogah, E., Maaji, S. P. and Ataitiya, H.(2023). Ecological and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals and Metalloid Levels in Soil around Metal Works Wukari. Advances in Earth and Environmental Science, 4 (1): 1-7. www.unisciencepub.com
28. Yoshida, S. and Shirasu, K. (2012). Plants that attack plants: molecular elucidation of plant parasitism. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 15: 708–713.
29. Zhuang, P., Ye, Z. H., Lan, C. Y., Xie, Z. W. and Hsu, W. S. (2005). Chemically assisted phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soils using three plant species. Plant Soil, 276: 153–162.