Volume 1, Issue 6, December 2013, Page: 279-287
Urbanization and Pollution of Surface Water Resources in the Two Largest Cities in Ghana
Isaac Monney, Department of Environmental Health and Sanitation Education, University of Education, Winneba, Mampong Ashanti, Ghana
Robert Boakye, Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, Kumasi, Ghana
Richard Buamah, Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, Kumasi, Ghana
Frederick Oppong Kyekyeku Anyemedu, Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, Kumasi, Ghana
Samuel Nii Odai, Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, Kumasi, Ghana
Esi Awuah, Office of the Vice Chancellor, University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani, Ghana
Received: Oct. 7, 2013;       Published: Oct. 30, 2013
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijema.20130106.12      View  3559      Downloads  223
Abstract
Pollution of freshwater resources draining urban centres in the developing world poses a threat to human health and environmental sustainability. This, apart from inadequate infrastructure, is primarily propelled by explosive urban pop-ulations. The study seeks to determine the level of pollution and sources of pollution in selected surface water resources in Accra and Kumasi. Water samples from specific locations of the Aboabo river in Kumasi and the upper reaches of the Korle Lagoon in Accra were collected and analysed for their physico-chemical and microbial quality during the study period. The results from the study pointed out that the upper reaches of the Lagoon is rendered anaerobic during the dry season and with appreciably low DO even during the wet season. Drastic depreciation in DO levels in the Aboabo river as it flows through highly populated areas (Aboabo, Moshie Zongo and Anloga) were depicted through the study. Elevated BOD (upper reaches of the Korle Lagoon: 27.7 - 200mg/L; Aboabo river: 38.25mg/L - 260mg/L) and E. coli (upper reaches of the Korle Lagoon: 5.0x106 - 2.8x109 CFU/100mL; Aboabo river: 4.0x106 CFU/100mL - 1.3x108 CFU/100mL) levels were also recorded in both waterbodies generally attributed to disposal of organic wastes and faecal matter into them. An integrated approach that takes cognizance of both technical and socio-economic factors behind this phenomenon is proposed by the study.
Keywords
Water Quality, Pollution, Aboabo River, Kumasi, Korle Lagoon, Accra
To cite this article
Isaac Monney, Robert Boakye, Richard Buamah, Frederick Oppong Kyekyeku Anyemedu, Samuel Nii Odai, Esi Awuah, Urbanization and Pollution of Surface Water Resources in the Two Largest Cities in Ghana, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 1, No. 6, 2013, pp. 279-287. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20130106.12
Reference
[1]
L. Danquah, K. Abass, and A. A Nikoi, "Anthropogenic Pollution of Inland Waters: the Case of the Aboabo River in Kumasi, Ghana", Journal of Sustainable Development. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2011, pp 103 - 115.
[2]
UNDP, "Water Governance for Poverty Reduction", New York, USA, 2004, pp 2.
[3]
Poverty-Environment Partnership. 2007. Linking Poverty Reduction and Water Management.URL: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/resources/povertyreduc2.pdf
[4]
UNESCO-WWAP, "Water for People, Water for Life", The United Nations World Water Development Programme, Paris, France, 2003, pp 10.
[5]
A. Markandya, "Water Quality Issues in Developing Countries", World Bank and University of Bath, 2004.URL: http://policydialogue.org/files/publications/Water_Quality_markandia.pdf
[6]
S. Abbaspour, "Water Quality in Developing Countries, South Asia, South Africa, Water Quality Management and Activities that Cause Water Pollution", 2011 International Conference on Environmental and Agriculture Engineering, 2011, Vol. 15, pp 94 - 102.
[7]
K. O. Boadi and M. Kuitunen, "Urban Waste Pollution in Korle Lagoon, Accra, Ghana". The Environmentalist. Vol. 22, 2002, pp 301-309.
[8]
E. Awuah, and E. Fiakuma, "State of Sanitation in Accra". SWITCH: Accra Visioning and Scenario Planning Workshop, 2007, pp 1-5.
[9]
S.O. Fakayode, "Impact assessment of industrial effluent on water quality of the receiving Alaro river in Ibadan, Nigeria". African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management. Vol. 10, 2005, pp 1-13.
[10]
N.K. Asare-Donkor, D.D. Wemegah, and A.A. Adimado." Chemical Analysis of Freshwater Bodies in the Kumasi Metropolis and Its Environs, Ghana". Journal of Environment and Earth Science. Vol. 3 No. 9, 2013, pp 37 - 45.
[11]
T.P.Z. Mpofu, "Environmental challenges of urbanization: A case study for open green space management". Research Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Management. Vol. 2 No. 4, 2013,105-110.
[12]
K. Afeku, "Urbanization and Flooding in Accra". MA Thesis (Unpublished). Miami University. Ohio, United States (2005).
[13]
F. A. Armah, "Local Participation in Water Resource Management: Case Study of Old Fadama Community, Ghana". Lund University International Masters Programme in Environmental Studies and Sustainability Science (LUMES). Lund, Sweden, 2008.
[14]
Ghana Statistical Service, 2010. URL: http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/greater_accra.html.
[15]
UN-HABITAT . "Housing as a Strategy for Poverty Reduction in Ghana". United Nations Human Settlements Programme. UNON, Publishing Services Section, Nairobi. Kenya, 2010.
[16]
K.O. Boadi, M. Kuitunen, K. Raheem and K. Hanninen, "Urbanization without Development: Environmental and Health Implications in African Cities". Environment, Development and Sustainability, Vol 7, 2005, pp 465–500.
[17]
F. Puopiel, "Solid Waste Management in Ghana: The Case of Tamale Metropolitan Area", MSc Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 2010.
[18]
S. Mariwah, "Institutional Arrangements for Managing Solid Waste in the Shama-Ahanta-East Metropolis, Ghana". Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. Vol. 14, No. 6, 2012, pp 292-312.
[19]
R. Hirata, F. Stephen, D. Gomes, M. D’Elia, and P. Marta, "Groundwater Quality Protection": A Guideline for Water Utilities, Municipal Authorities and Environment Agencies. Words and Publications. Oxford, United Kingdom, 2002.
[20]
A. Y. Karikari, K. A. Asante and C. A. Biney, "Water Quality Characteristics at the Estuary of Korle Lagoon in Ghana". CSIR-Water Research Institute, Accra. Ghana, 1997.
[21]
S. K. Anku, "Managing Wetlands in Accra, Ghana", African Regional Workshop on Cities, Ecosystems and Biodiversity, Nairobi, Kenya, 2006, pp 8.
[22]
A. T. Amuzu, "The Impact of Urbanization and Development on Surface Waters in Ghana". Freshwater Contamination. Proceedings of Rabat Symposium S4, April-May 1997. IAHS Publications, 1997, No. 243. pp 117.
[23]
APHA/AWWA/WEF. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Edition. Washington DC, USA (1999).
[24]
R. F. Spellman, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations. Lewis Publishers, CRC Press Company. Florida, USA (2003), pp 547 - 551
[25]
J.C. Akan, F.I. Abdulrahman, J.T. Ayodele and V.O. Ogugbuaja, "Impact of Tannery and Textile Effluent on the Chemical Characteristics of Challawa River", Kano State, Nigeria. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2009, pp 1933-1947.
[26]
USEPA. "Aquatic Life Criteria for Dissolved Oxygen - (Saltwater)" Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. Fact Sheet 2000. URL: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/waterquality/standards/criteria/aqlife/dissolved/dofacts.cfm
[27]
R. F. Weiner, R. Matthews, J. J. Peirce and P. A. Vesilind, Environmental Engineering. 4th Edition. Butterworth Heinemann Publications. New York, USA 2003, pp 153.
[28]
D. Liu, Environmental Engineers’ Handbook. CRC Press. Florida, USA , 1999, pp 539 - 546.
[29]
B. Shaw , C. Mechenich and L. Klessig, "Understanding Lake Data. College of Natural Resources", University of Wisconsin. Cooperative Extension Publishing Operations. Madison, USA, 2004.
[30]
E. Awuah, "Pathogen Removal Mechanisms in Macrophyte and Algal Waste Stabilization Ponds". Doctoral Dissertation, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education. Taylor and Francis Group/Balkema. Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2006.
Browse journals by subject