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Volume 2, Issue 4, August 2014, Page: 226-230
Occurrence of Selected Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in Water from a Fish Pond Settlement in Ogun State, Nigeria
Olaitan James Olatunde, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria
Olukoya Olatunbosun, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria
Ayodele Olatunde, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria
Chimezie Anyakora, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria
Kesi Christopher, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria
Received: Aug. 16, 2014;       Accepted: Sep. 1, 2014;       Published: Sep. 20, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijema.20140204.16      View  3259      Downloads  180
Abstract
Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants that are increasingly entering the water system. These include veterinary drugs which are used for treating, mitigating or preventing illness or influencing specific body functions in animals. This research is aimed at using HPLC to detect the presence of veterinary drugs that were extracted in fish-pond-wastewater and river water from an aqua cultural environment in Ijebu-Ode (Ogun State-Nigeria) using Solid Phase Extraction Cartridges (C8 and C18). The three pharmaceuticals tested were Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol. All the pharmaceuticals, except Tetracycline, were found in varying concentrations with the highest value for Chloramphenicol found to be 0.60ng/ml and that of Oxytetracycline was 0.46ng/ml. The discovery of Chloramphenicol and Oxytetracycline in water using SPE-HPLC is novel in Nigeria. This result showed the prevalence of pharmaceuticals in water in this small community which occasionally depends on river water for domestic purposes. Establishing modern wastewater treatment devices which can conveniently remove pharmaceuticals in water before they are discharge into the environment is recommended as this will help to preserve our ecosystem.
Keywords
Pharmaceuticals, Ijebu-Ode, Antibiotics, Solid-Phase-Extraction, HPLC, Fish-Pond, Wastewater, Treatment-Plants
To cite this article
Olaitan James Olatunde, Olukoya Olatunbosun, Ayodele Olatunde, Chimezie Anyakora, Kesi Christopher, Occurrence of Selected Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in Water from a Fish Pond Settlement in Ogun State, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2014, pp. 226-230. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20140204.16
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