Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2015, Page: 7-16
Removal of Water Hardness Causing Constituents Using Alkali Modified Sugarcane Bagasse and Coffee Husk at Jigjiga City, Ethiopia: A Comparative Study
Adhena Ayaliew Werkneh, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Jigjiga University, PO. Box: 1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia
Angaw Kelemework Abay, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Jigjiga University, PO. Box: 1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia
Anbisa Muleta Senbeta, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Dryland Agriculture, Jigjiga University, PO. Box: 1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia
Received: Dec. 27, 2014;       Accepted: Jan. 6, 2015;       Published: Jan. 14, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijema.20150301.12      View  2758      Downloads  242
Abstract
Alkaline modified sugarcane bagasse and coffee husk were used for the adsorption of water hardness causing constituents (Ca+2 and Mg+2). The water hardness sample was collected using polyethylene bottle from Jigjiga city drinking water supply, Ethiopia. The adsorbents were characterized using FTIR and BET surface area techniques. The concentration of the constituents were determined using AAS Spectroscopy. It was found that, using the ABC and ACHC as an adsorbent, the maximum sorption capacity obtained for Ca and Mg hardness adsorption are 46.8 and 37.35, and 52.9 and 41.23 mg g-1 for ACHC and ABC respectively. Activated carbon filtration also depends on various parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, temperature and initial Ca and Mg ion concentrations. The maximum recovery of the adsorbed calcium and magnesium was achieved in less than 200 minutes leading to 78% and 73% respectively. After treating synthetic water solution simulating an actual water stream with the alkali-modified bagasse and coffee husk, total hardness of the treated sample meets the required standard for drinking water, below 60 mg/L of CaCO3. Therefore, ABC is more suitable for the removal of hardness ions than ACHC from drinking water; and are considered as effective low cost adsorbents.
Keywords
Water Hardness, Activated Carbon, Bagasse, Coffee Husk
To cite this article
Adhena Ayaliew Werkneh, Angaw Kelemework Abay, Anbisa Muleta Senbeta, Removal of Water Hardness Causing Constituents Using Alkali Modified Sugarcane Bagasse and Coffee Husk at Jigjiga City, Ethiopia: A Comparative Study, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2015, pp. 7-16. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20150301.12
Reference
[1]
AWWA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed., Washington, DC, 2005.
[2]
O.K. Jinior, L.V.A. Gurgel, L.F. Gil, Removal of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from aqueous single metal solutions by mercerized cellulose and mercerized sugarcane bagasse grafted with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD), Carbohydr. Polym. 79 (2010) 184–191.
[3]
A. Zuorro, R. Lavecchia, S. Natali, Magnetically modified agro-industrial wastes as efficient and easily recoverable adsorbents for water treatment; chemical engineering transactions Vol. 38, 2014.
[4]
Ami Cobb, Low-Tech Coconut Shell Activated Charcoal Production, International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering Vol. 7, No. 1, pp 93-104, (2012).
[5]
D. Bruggen, C. Vandecasteele, Removal of pollutants from surface water and groundwater by nano filtration: Overview of possible applications in the drinking water industry, Environ. Pollut. 122 (2003) 435–445.
[6]
M.R. Teixeira, M.J. Rosa, The impact of the water background inorganic matrix on the natural organic matter removal by nanofiltration, J. Membr. Sci. 279 (2006) 513–520.
[7]
M. Yan, D. Wang, J. Ni, J. Qu, Y. Yan, C.W.K. Chow, Effect of polyaluminum chloride on enhanced softening for the typical organic-polluted high hardness North-China surface waters, Sep. Purif. Technol. 62 (2008) 401–406.
[8]
K. Suzuki, Y. Tanaka, T. Osada, M. Waki, Removal of phosphate, magnesium and calcium from swine wastewater through crystallization enhanced by aeration, Water Res. 36 (2002) pp 2991–2998.
[9]
A. Dimirkou, M.K. Doula, Use of clinoptilolite and an Fe-overexchanged clinoptilolite in Zn2+and Mn2+ removal from drinking water, Desalination. 224 (2008) 280–292.
[10]
R. Sheikholeslami, Composite scale formation and assessment by the theoretical Scaling Potential Index (SPI) proposed previously for a single salt, Desalination 278 (2011) 259–267.
[11]
L. Fu, J. Wang, Y. Su, Removal of low concentrations of hardness ions from aqueous solutions using electrodeionization process, Sep. Purif. Technol. 68 (2009) 390–396.
[12]
J.S. Park, J.H. Song, K.H. Yeon, S.H. Moon, Removal of hardness ions from tap water using electromembrane processes, Desalination 202 (2007) 1–8.
[13]
S.J. Seo, H. Jeon, J.K. Lee, G.Y. Kim, D. Park, H. Nojima, J. Lee, S.H. Moon, Investigation on removal of hardness ions by capacitive deionization (CDI) for water softening applications, Water Res. 44 ( 2010 ) 2267–2275.
[14]
C.W. Li, J.C. Liao, Y.C. Lin, Integrating a membrane and a fluidized pellet reactor for removing hardness: effects of NOM and phosphate, Desalination 175 (2005) 279-288.
[15]
J.N. Apell, T.H. Boyer, Combined ion exchange treatment for removal of dissolved organic matter and hardness, Water Res. 44 (2010) 2419–2430.
[16]
H. Faghihian, M.G. Maragheh, H. Kazemian, The use of clinoptilolite and it’s sodium form for removal of radioactive caesium, and strontium from nuclear wastewater and Pb++, Ni++, Cd++, Ba++ from municipal wastewater, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 4 (1999) pp 655-661.
[17]
H. Kazemian, H. Modarres, H.G. Mobtaker, Evaluating the performance of an Iranian natural clinoptilolite and its synthetic zeolite P for removal of Cerium and Thorium from nuclear wastewaters, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 258 (2003) 551-556
[18]
Seifi et al. Adsorption of BTEX on surfactant modified granulated natural zeolite nanoparticles: parameters optimizing by applying Taguchi experimental design method, Clean-Soil, Air, Water, 39 (2011) pp 939–948.
[19]
Sepehr et, al. (2013) Removal of hardness agents, calcium and magnesium, by natural and alkaline modified pumice stones in single and binary systems, Applied Surface Science, pp 295-305, Vol. 03 (42)
[20]
N. Feng, X. Guo, S. Liang, Y. Zhu, J. Liu, Biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by chemically modified orange peel, J. Hazard. Mater. 185 (2011) 49–54.
[21]
B. Ersoy, A. Sariisik, S. Dikmen, G. Sariisik, Characterization of acidic pumice and determination of its electrokinetic properties in water, Powder Technol. 197 (2010) 129–135.
[22]
B. Ozturk, Y. Yildirim, Investigation of sorption capacity of pumice for SO2 capture, Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 86 (2008) 31– 36.
[23]
M.R. Panuccio, A. Sorgona, M. Rizzo, G. Cacco, Cadmium adsorption on vermiculite, zeolite and pumice: Batch experimental studies, J. Environ. Manage. 90 (2009) 364-374.
[24]
F. Akbal, Sorption of phenol and 4-chlorophenol onto pumice treated with cationic surfactant, J. Environ. Manage. 74 (2005) 239–244.
[25]
H. Kazemian, M.H .Mallah, Elimination of Cd2+ and Mn2+ from Wastewaters Using Natural Clinoptilolite and Synthetic Zeolite-P, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 25 (2006) 91-94.
[26]
F. Gode, E. Moral, Column study on the adsorption of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) using Pumice, Yarıkkaya brown coal, Chelex-100 and Lewatit MP 62, Bioresour. Technol. 99 (2008) 1981– 1991.
Browse journals by subject